Among the fundamental steps for your perfect degree thesis, bibliography and sitography deserve a place of honor.

But what are Bibliography and Sitography?

Let’s get to know them more closely.

By bibliography, we mean a list of all the sources that we consult for the elaboration of our degree thesis

  • Books
  • Essays
  • Official documents
  • Library documents
  • Articles
  • Etc

The bibliography and you can well understand it, is a crucial step able to optimize our work: it is the strength, the fundamental component of the thesis, so it is important to write it in the right and most complete way possible.

By sitography , on the other hand, we mean a list of telematic sites related to a specific topic

The site links , therefore, is nothing more than the ‘ set of “digital” results of your thesis that you have consulted and have found useful for the preparation of your work. You can well imagine that the website, with the enormous opportunities that the Internet allows us, becomes of fundamental importance.

Having made this necessary premise, let’s look deeper intor the use of these two precious components of your perfect thesis.

First, however, remember that the website must be inserted, within your thesis, immediately after the bibliography.

The bibliography

You must know that there are various ways to write an engaging and professional bibliography. There are some key points that you must respect:

  • The texts consulted must always be inserted in the progressive order in which they appear cited in your work

Enter the number corresponding to the bibliographic entry, in brackets, where reference will be made to a text. 

  • The bibliography will not be in alphabetical order
  • It will not be necessary to report sources as footnotes

Let’s take some examples!


UNHCR Global Trends’ annual report, released two days before World Refugee Day on June 20, reveals that an unprecedented 79.5 million people were on the run at the end of 2019. UNHCR had never recorded such a high figure (1).

The annual increase, compared to the 70.8 million people on the run recorded at the end of 2018, is the result of two main factors. The first concerns the new worrying crises that occurred in 2019, in particular in the Democratic Republic of Congo, in the Sahel region, in Yemen and in Syria, the latter now in its tenth year of conflict and responsible for the exodus of 13.2 million refugees, asylum seekers and internally displaced persons, more than a sixth of the world total. (2).


(1) The Un Ref. Agency, Global Trends UNCHR. Rome: Unchr Italy report – EDIT 2018: 23-25

(2) Surname and name pointed to the author, title – eg. part one Unchr World – publisher name, period or year, pages from to.

If the text is cited several times in your degree thesis, just report the corresponding number.

If it’s not clear let’s recap:

  • surname of the author followed by the pointed name (eg. Ligabue L.)
  • title and subtitle of the book in italics ( The night before the exams: emotions before the big day )
  • place of publication: to be inserted on the back of the title page, where the publisher and the date of publication must be added (eg Turin)
  • Publishing House (eg. Feltrinelli Editore)
  • date of publication (e.g. February 1987)

Result: Ligabue L., The night before the exams: emotions before the big day, Turin, Feltrinelli Editore, February 1987.


However, there are some special cases that you need to evaluate:

  • If the work you cited has multiple authors
  • If you need to cite an article published in a magazine

In the first case follow this pattern:

  • surname and dotted name of the authors arranged in alphabetical order (based on surnames)
  • title of the book in italics
  • city ​​of publication
  • publishing house
  • year of publication

In the second case it will be sufficient to do this:

  • surname and dotted name of the author of the article
  • article title in italics
  • magazine title in quotation marks and preceded by “in”
  • annuity (indicated with “a.” and in Roman numerals) and magazine number (indicated with no. and in Arabic numerals)
  • publication date

Seen? It just takes a lot of attention. Nothing impossible! you can do it

The sitography

To have, within your thesis, an enviable website, it is necessary to keep in mind some passages and small schemes that are easy to respect.

If we want to include a website within the website:

  • Author surname and author’s dotted name followed by a comma.
  • Site title and subtitle in italics and separated by a period and followed by a comma.
  • Website address followed by a comma
  • Date of consultation of the site and final point


Rossi M., La Stampa,, accessed on 12/08/2020.

If we want to use articles from digital magazines:

  • Author’s surname and first name with comma
  • Title of the article in italics with comma
  • Journal title in quotation marks and commas
  • Annuity indicated with “a.” and in Roman numerals
  • Magazine number indicated with n. and in Arabic numerals
  • Date of publication and interval of pages consulted
  • Article URL and point


Bianchi M., The contemporary museum and the new arts, in “Exibart”, a. X, May 2020, pp. 4-8,, accessed on 25/08/2020.

If we want to use articles from an eBook we use the same scheme of the bibliography with the only addition of the URL and the date of consultation


Leonardi S., Il COVID-19, research of factors and causes, casaccess, 2020, sl, 130 p., Https:// cause-ebook-simone-leonardi / e / 9817878782, accessed on 10/12/2020.

If we want to use articles from a web page:

Alessi MP, Geografia, La Repubblica, updated on 12/10/2020,, accessed on 15/12/2020.

Finally, for the blog , follow this procedure:

Travaglio M., Il Fatto Quotidiano, Ebook, Italian politics difficult historical moment, article date 16/01/2020, updated on 06/03/2020, -bla-bla-bla / 5549130 /, accessed 06/11/2020.



Now you have all the information to work your degree thesis in the best possible way and provide it with an enviable bibliography and website.

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