Principles of Communication in Healthcare

Learner Name: Andreia Moribe Baraldi

1. Introduction

In this assessment, I am going to analyse advanced professional communication and cultural skills and approaches employed by facilitative managers. In addition, I am going to apply advanced professional communication and cultural skills and approaches utilised by facilitative managers.

2. Communication approaches

There are four mainly communication styles: passive, aggressive, assertive and direct. Each one of them has their own characteristics, and people can have a predominant style. However, they can use different styles in different situations.

2.1 Passive Communication

Passive communicators usually have difficulties to identify and meet their own needs because they have low self-esteem and do not express their opinions and thoughts to avoid confrontation by others. They have a very ineffective communication, poor eye contact and body language, and speak in a soft tone and apologetic way. In the workplace, they are considered not proactive and not reliable. This kind of communication normally happens as consequence of submissiveness education/society, in which people hide their opinions to satisfy others involved. This habit can be prejudicial if a person starts to feel increasingly unsatisfied, and it results in an explosive instant. After that, the person feels ashamed and guilty, returning to their original form (Vennapoosa, 2011).

The typical passive communicator sentences are: ”





‘s fine….yes,

all right

” (Getselfhelp, n.d.).

However, passive communication can be an effective approach in specific situations, such as to deal with aggressive people. So, this kind of communicator can be helpful consequently, in certain moments, in health organisations where people are usually in extreme situations.

2.2 Aggressive Communication

Individuals express verbally and physically their needs, feelings and opinions in a tough and impulsive manner, violating others’ rights. They are not good listeners and make interruptions frequently. They have an intimidating posture, speaking loud voice and trying to dominate others. They always blame others in difficult situations rather than solve their own problems.  According to Bolton (1987), a considerable percentage of the population is an aggressive communicator and this characteristic has been related to physical survival in current societies, once these people are less vulnerable to hostility and competition. Also, they usually have more changes to be successful and survive in leadership positions and to receive better salaries than submissive persons. In fact, many people have this behaviour because they feel weak, but they want to transmit the impression that they are strong. The President of the United States of America, Richard Nixon, for example, often acted aggressively.

Aggressive communicators usually say: “I’m superior and right and you’re inferior and wrong’; “It’s all your fault” (UK Violence Intervention and Prevention Center, n.d).

Sometimes in a health centre, an aggressive communicator can be useful, mainly in risk situations, emergencies or when people are in shock. Due to their energic attitudes, aggressive communicators can easily take forward in making decisions while others are emotionally shaken.

2.3 Assertive communication

It is the right balance between aggressive and passive communication, resulting in the most effective and healthiest approach of communication. Assertive communicators express their feelings and opinions, protect their owns rights, but respecting other people. They take accountability for their own choices, accept the possibility of rejection. So, it means that assertive communicators will not always get what they want. They usually have high self-esteem and confidence. Their posture is relaxed, good eye contact and medium voice volume and speed. According to specialists, assertive communication is the style less used by most of the people and everyone can develop the ability to be an assertive communicator, however it takes time and practice.

Common statements of assertive communicators are: “I am so sorry, but I won’t be able to help you with your project this afternoon, as I have a dentist appointment.” (Newton, 2011).

Health professionals should have this style of communication in most of the time once they should be prepared to have open conversations with colleagues and patients. Patients should feel comfortable to talk to them, however in some situations, the health professional’s point of view must be stated.

2.4 Direct Communication

Direct communicators expose their points with conviction, their speech transmits clear messages or clearly directs actions through using words like “should” and “have to”. They feel comfortable to tell others what to do (McIntyre, 2011).

This style of communication is linked to truthfulness and efficiency, and it is an essential skill for business or political persons in some cultures, such as Americans, Germans, Australians and Anglo-Canadians. On the other hand, Chinese, Saud Arabians, Japanese, Indians, seen the direct communication negatively, as a rude and impolite way to communicate, even in a business situation. So, intense conflicts can be avoiding been aware of this cultural differences (Watershed Associates, n.d.).

Direct communicators they always raise problems to others face and they are very transparent about their thoughts and opinions. This “clear atmosphere” makes great things happen because everyone is not afraid to be direct. However, a lot of people struggle to be direct, and it may be affecting their relationships, potential and careers.

Professionals should have a direct communication style. Otherwise, they fail to make clear what they want and what they do not want. Meantime, some people have a “bad” direct communication once they associate it with anger and uses this skill to hurt rather than to tell the truth and use it in a good intent (Cizek, n.d.).

Health professionals that have direct communication behaviours are seen as reliable professionals especially for patients in serious health problems when normally hard decisions have to be made.


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Passive Communication

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